Check out these 9 Fascinating Facts about X-rays

The invention of x-ray has done wonders in the field of medicine. Its contribution in the world of medical science has been phenomenal. Today, X-ray is considered to be an indispensable tool in our lives. Following are some amazing facts related to this invention which has contributed immensely in the field of science:

© Nevit Dilmen

  1. The discovery of X-ray happened in Germany in 1895, by the scientist Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen, while performing a research on cathode rays. X-ray discovery had happened accidentally! Owing to its inventor, X-rays are also named as Rontgen radiation.
  2.  It is a known fact that X- ray is a kind of electromagnetic radiation, having a wavelength which is as minute as 4 billionth part of an inch! They are shorter than the UV rays but longer than gamma rays.
  3.  Due to their unknown nature, they were given the name “X-rays”.
  4.  Today, X-rays are used in the treatment of various dreadful ailments like cancer, fracture, tumors etc, by passing intense radiation through the affected part and taking the image.
  5.  X-rays can easily pass through the soft tissues of our body. Our bones, due to having dense calcium, block the rays. But, at the same time, soft tissues like muscle and skin let the rays pass through them.
  6.  X-rays have been extremely beneficial in diagnosing defects and ailments related to bones.
  7.  The primary sources of X-rays are galaxies and stars. The remnants of Crab nebula and other such supernovae emit strong X-rays.
  8.   One more important use of X-rays is CAT scan in which very thin beams are used to get a clear image of various body organs.
  9.  Scientists used X-ray to verify the theory of ‘crystallography’.


5 facts about Sun Tzu before The Art of War


If Sun Tzu were alive today, he might be surprised at how popular he is. His teaching The Art of War now circulates around the world in over 15 languages. You are probably reading this right now because you want to apply The Art of War’s lessons to competition in everyday personal and business life. Indeed, The Art of War is not just some witty tactics or useful tips to success; it is a collection of in-depth knowledge and wisdom produced amid the vigorous political instability in the Spring Autumn Period of Chinese history (770 B.C. – 476 B.C.). But before we jump ahead, let us go back and look at the legendary man’s story and his family background.

Here are five fun facts about Sun Tzu before he wrote The Art of War:

  1. Sun Tzu was born in a politically unstable era – the Spring Autumn Period.

At that time, China was not a unified land. It was broken into main five states, and each state was named after the last name of the political king (or feudalist). Emperor Zhou was not strong enough to concretize the feudalists’ loyalty. In many ways, Emperor Zhou is sort of like Queen Elizabeth, with virtually no legitimacy, but unlike Queen Elizabeth, the soldiers and feudalists have no respect for Emperor Zhou.

  1. According to mythology, Sun Tzu’s original last name was “Chen,” not “Sun.”

There are many controversies in regards to Sun Tzu’s biography, but one of the most widely believed versions states that his grandfather Tianshu Sun took refuge in Qi State due to the civil war in Chen State. The grandfather changed his last name to Tian (meaning agricultural land), but was later anointed the last name “Sun” by King Qi for the outstanding performance in the warfare.

  1. Military affairs were in his blood.

You can tell by now that Sun Tzu was born with military affiliation. Tracing back to several generations, his family had experts in military affairs. With the elite background given to Sun Tzu’s grandfather by King Qi, Sun Tzu received very good education at a very young age. Together with Sun Tzu’s own passion in learning, he read extensively. Since his father was also a soldier on the front line, Sun Tzu heard many stories about warfare.

  1. The Art of War is not the first book on military affairs in world history.

Sun Tzu read The Politics of War and The Journal of War when he was young. These books were unfortunately lost in time, but the books were believed to have recorded King Huang and other ancient Emperors’ philosophies on warfare.



playing craps

“Facts About Las Vegas”
(1996 statistics from the Las Vegas Convention and Visitors Authority.)

A record 29.6 million travelers visted Las Vegas in 1996.
A nationwide survey by the U.S. Travel Industry Association found that 38% of all U.S. residents have been to Las Vegas in their lifetime. The average length of visitors’ stay in Las Vegas was almost 4 days (3.7).

87% of all people who visted Las Vegas in 1996 gambled.

Of people who gambled, the average gambling budget for the trip was $580.90., On average, those gamblers gamble 4 hours per day.

68% of the people who gamble play the slot machines most often.

The largest percentage of visitors to Las Vegas were in the age group of 65 and older (22%).

35% of the 1996 Las Vegas visitors had earned a high school diploma. 26% of the 1996 vistors graduated from college.

In 1996 there were over 100,000 hotel rooms (101,106) in the city of Las Vegas. New York City has 63, 279 hotel rooms.

During 1996, singer Wayne Newton celebrated his 25,000th Las Vegas performance. Siegfried and Roy performed their 15,000th Las Vegas Show.

In 1996 Las Vegas hosted 3,827 conventions and 112 trade shows.

On the Las Vegas strip in 1996 there were 40 casinos with a gross gaming revenue of at least $1 million for the year.
More Stats…

Two decades ago, 2 states had legal gambling and 48 states outlawed it. Today, 48 states have some form of legal gambling. Only Hawaii and Utah do not.
Over 60% of American adults gambled last year or over the past twelve months on some activity. Over 80% say that gambling is legitimate and casinos are okay.

Gambling generates more revenue than movies, spectator sports, theme parks, cruise ships and recorded music combined.

Las Vegas is the fastest growing city in the U.S. Players lose $6 billion a year at Las Vegas casinos.

The number of visitors to the new casino/entertainment complex, “New York, New York ” in the first two months of its opening equaled the visitor volume for all of Las Vegas. If it continues at this pace, by the end of the year there will be 30 million visitors to Las Vegas and 30 million to “New York, New York.”

Gambling has become a $40 billion dollar a year industry in the United States.

From 1974 to 1994–20 years–the amount of money Americans legally wagered has risen 2,800 percent, from $17 billion to $482 billion.

Experts outside the gambling industry estimate that people with gambling addictions account for about 5% of all players–but 25% of casino and state lottery profits.-

Gambling interests have contributed $4.5 million to political parties and candiates at the federal level since 1991.–Center for Public Integrity, 1996 report (NOTE: This number is dwarfed by the amount spent at the state-level, as FRONTLINE’s “Easy Money” report shows. Most of the laws regulating gambling are state laws.)

Mirage Resorts Inc., made Fortune magazine’s 1996 list of the 10 most admired companies. Steve Wynn, the company’s CEO, as of 1996 had a $1 billion dollar line of credit with Bank of America.

The California State Employee’s Retirement fund, U.S. Steel’s pension fund, and Harvard University’s endowment have all owned stock in gambling companies.

During Virgina’s 1995 legislative session, gambling interests hired 48 lobbyists. In Texas, they hired 74, more than two for every state Senator and one for every two members of the Texas House of Representatives.

A U.S. News & World Report computer analysis of 55 counties that got casinos between 1990 and 1992 found that the 4 percent increase in new businesses in these counties matched that for the rest of the nation, leading to the conclusion that gambling does not generate economic expansion in the areas in which it operates.

The fastest growing industry in the world is Indian gambling. There are 150 Indian casinos in the U.S. as of May 1997

Indian gaming is a $27 billion a year business in the U.S. (1997).



53 Crazy Laws

**Many of these laws were established during the end of the 1800s and early 1900s, when the United States was rapidly changing from an agricultural to industrial nation. Some of the laws went out of date or were repealed. Many are still on the books but not enforced.
    1. Before 1920, it was illegal for women in the United States to vote. When women’s rights advocate Susan B. Anthony tried to vote in the 1872 election, she was arrested and fined $100.c
    2. It’s illegal to ride an ugly horse in Wilbur, Washington.c

chicken crossing

      It is illegal for chickens to cross the road in Quitman, Georgia

    1. In Quitman, Georgia, chickens may not cross the road.c
    2. In Mohave County, Arizona, if anyone is caught stealing soap, he must wash himself with it until the soap is gone.c
    3. First cousins may marry in Utah, but only after they’re 65 years old.a
    4. In North Dakota, no one can be arrested on the Fourth of July, a holiday that is commonly known there as “Five Finger Discount Day.”a
    5. In Tennessee, it is illegal for children to play games on Sunday without a license.b
    6. It is illegal in Tennessee for an atheist to hold office.b
    7. In Indiana, it is illegal for a man to be sexually aroused in public.a
    8. It is illegal in California to lick toads. Apparently, some people were licking toads to get high. Unfortunately, some people were being harmed by the toads’ poison.d
    9. It is against Michigan state law to tie a crocodile to a fire hydrant.a
    10. An old Colorado law states that a person mush have a doctor’s prescription before taking a bath.c
    11. Colorado law states that a man cannot marry his wife’s grandmother.b
    12. In Kansas, when two trains meet at a crossing, “both shall come to full stop and neither shall start up again until the other has gone.”c
    13. A woman in a housecoat is forbidden to drive a car in California.b
    14. According to Minneapolis law, a person who double parks a car will be put on a chain gang with only bread and water to eat.b

woman's hair

      In Michigan, husbands legally own their wives’ hair

    1. In Michigan, a woman’s hair belongs to her husband.b
    2. In Morrisville, Pennsylvania, it is illegal for a woman to wear cosmetics without a permit.b
    3. A man is forbidden to kiss a woman while she’s asleep in Logan County, Colorado.d
    4. In Challis, Idaho, it is illegal to walk down the street with another man’s wife.b
    5. Flirting in Little Rock, Arkansas, can land someone in jail for 30 days.c
    6. In Truro, Mississippi, a man must prove himself worthy before getting married by hunting and killing either six blackbirds or three crows.b
    7. There are still laws in Pueblo, Colorado, stating that it is illegal to grow dandelions.b
    8. A woman in Memphis, Tennessee, is not allowed to drive a car unless a man is in front of the car waving a red flag to warn people and other cars.b
    9. It is illegal for children under the age of 12 to talk on the telephone unless accompanied by a parent in Blue Earth, Minnesota.b
    10. In Kalispell, Montana, children must have a doctor’s note if they want to buy a lollipop.b
    11. A representative from Oklahoma, Linda Larsen attempted to lower the divorce rate by proposing a law that would require the following before a marriage license would be issued: neither party should snore, at least one meal a week should be prepared by the non-primary cook, toothpaste should be squeezed from the bottom of the tube, pantyhose shouldn’t be left hanging in the shower, and the toilet seat should always be down when not being used.b

guy mustache

      Men with mustaches are forbidden to kiss women in Eureka, Nevada

    1. In Eureka, Nevada, it is illegal for men who have mustaches to kiss women.b
    2. It is illegal in Waco, Texas, to throw a banana peel onto the street because a horse could slip.d
    3. In Texas, the Encyclopedia Britannica was banned because it contained a formula for making beer.b
    4. Pickles were outlawed in Los Angeles because the smell might offend people.b
    5. It’s illegal in St. Louis, Missouri, for a fireman to rescue a woman wearing a nightgown. If she wants to be rescued, she must be fully clothed.b
    6. Hartford, Connecticut, banned men from kissing their wives on Sundays.d
    7. Buying ice cream on Sundays was illegal in Ohio because it was thought to be frivolous and “luxurious.” Consequently, ice cream vendors would put fruit on top of the ice cream to make it more nutritious, creating the ice cream sundae.b
    8. A woman wearing shorts, a halter top, or a bathing suit to a political rally in Wheatfield, Indiana, could be charged with a misdemeanor.d
    9. In Lander, Wyoming, it is illegal for adults to take a bath more than once a month once the cold weather arrives. Children cannot take a bath at all during the winter.b
    10. According to Florida law, anyone who takes a bath must wear clothes.b
    11. Motorists in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, cannot park a car for more than two hours unless it is hitched to a horse.b
    12. Women in Whitesville, Delaware, could be charged with disorderly conduct if they propose marriage to a man.b
    13. In Kentucky, it is against the law to remarry the same man four times.a
    14. There is a law in South Carolina that allows a husband to beat his wife on the courthouse steps on a Sunday.b
    15. In Arizona, oral sex is considered sodomy.b
    16. In Arizona, a man may legally beat his wife once a month, but no more.b

girl flirting

    A girl may not ask a boy for a date over the phone in Dyersburg, Tennessee

  1. In Dyersburg, Tennessee, it is against the law for a girl to telephone a boy to ask for a date.b
  2. In Kentucky, a woman is forbidden to wear a bathing suit on a highway unless she is armed with a club or is escorted by at least two officers. The amendment says that the provisions of this statue “shall not apply to a female weighing less than 90 pounds or exceeding 200 pounds.”b
  3. According to an Atlanta, Georgia, ordinance, “smelly people” are not allowed to ride public streetcars.a
  4. Massachusetts passed a law in 1648 that allowed a parent to put to death a stubborn or rebellious son. The law has been repealed by the legislature.b
  5. In Massachusetts, a person could be fined up to $200 for denying the existence of God.d
  6. In 1659, Massachusetts outlawed Christmas. According to state law, anybody observing Christmas would be fined five shillings.b
  7. In California, ostrich steaks are exempt from state sales tax.b
  8. In Lexington, Kentucky, it is against the law to carry an ice cream cone in a pocket.c
  9. Policemen are allowed to bite a dog if they think it will calm the dog down in Paulding, Ohio.c
  10. In Zeigler, Illinois, only the first four firemen to arrive at a fire will be paid.c
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