How Can You Justify Legalizing Drugs

overdose

With legalizing marijuana becoming the movement of today, the New York Times wrote an in-depth review of what happens when people do drugs, attached below. What becomes apparent to me, my first thought, is how can legislators complain about these people if they are allowing the legalization of hallucinogenic drugs, (report from the National Institute of Health) into our society. The double edged sword of wanting to legalize drugs but then complaining about the what that legislation will lead to is nothing short of ironic. These people, that no doubt a majority started with marijuana, graduated to opioids. Very rarely do people start with hard drugs, the usual pattern, whether you want to admit it or not, starts with cannabis. My thoughts are if you don’t want your child to end up lying on the street with the possibility of overdosing on drugs, then applying stricter laws on mind altering drug should the more common sense approach. Revenue should not serve as a guide to decision making because in the end it will cost more than you will earn from these products to clean up the mess. If marijuana had a possibility of only having positive side effects, like alcohol, then I would be all for it. Alcohol, wine in particular, if taken in moderation and responsibly, will actually prolong your life, make you healthier. Marijuana has negative side effects from the the first puff as it damages lungs right away, albeit minimally, in prolonged use, even in moderation, it will shorten your life.

DACA. Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals or Delayed Approach Causing Animosity?

DACA dreamer

I think this conversation needs to be settled. This is why politics has so many people turned off and against each other. In one corner you have politicians that want to exploit an issue that puts people’s life at risk and in the other you have people, to no fault of their own, in a perilous position of being deported to a country that they don’t know, haven’t seen, maybe ever, and wouldn’t have the first clue what to do if they have to leave. It almost seems like a reality show. Survivor. I’m confident that the right thing will happen. After all the stance taking and chest puffing, I am confident, admittedly not as much as I used to be, that the right thing will be done and these individuals that are upstanding young soon to be citizens will get their day and be allowed a path to citizenship. These are hard times for them and I have seen this first hand, heard stories straight out of their mouths and witnessed some atrocities. I’m going to try and walk you through some events these people faced.

Prior to my job as an unrenowned blog splatterer, I used to work for the federal government. One of my jobs was as a Border Patrol Agent. The Border Patrol’s (BP), now known as U.S. Customs and Border Protection, duties were simply to affect arrests on anyone trying to circumvent customs and/or gaining entry into the United States illegally. Border Patrol agentI worked the southern border where California meets with Tijuana, Mexico and I did my job well, I like to think. I caught people from all nationalities like Mexican, Brazilian, Chinese, Cuban, El Salvador, Guatemala, Venezuela, and a host of other countries. I didn’t particularly love my job but I didn’t hate it either. Regardless of all the hoopla, the position is necessary and the people that work for the BP are dedicated good people that put their lives on the line for the security of our country. They work some of the most perilous terrains and remote areas and try to deter the influx of illegal drugs as well as illegal entry. In my four years their I have run into some very good people, not my fellow ex- Agents but people crossing into the U.S..

A story I would like to share happened on the Tijuana Canal where the U.S. border meets the Mexican border. On this particular night I was working Whiskey 3 (W3), a hard X. This means that I was positioned at this location and was not to move, to act as a deterrence from people crossing. I hear a banging on the gate that leads into the canal and people yelling in Spanish. I go over to the gate and their were several people talking to me in Spanish saying that they were being robbed. I told them to back up and head over to the south side and I’ll go check it out. As I opened the gate and stepped into the canal, I asked W4 to keep an eye out on me as I entered the canal, you never know. As I stepped closer to the border, a yellow line that runs north to south, to peak around the fence, I kept telling this group of 5 to keep backing up to the south side, pointing my flashlight at their faces and hands to make sure they weren’t armed. They had a terrified look on their faces, they didn’t want to go. They wanted to stay on the north side. As I approached I kept telling them to back up, “Muevance para atras”, (use google translate), Still terrified, they were begging me to help. I get to where the yellow line separates the two countries and look around the corner and see a big man grabbing another man by the shirt, as he laid on the ground pointing a gun, an old .38 revolver, at him. The man on the ground InkedInkedTJ Canal W 3_LIhad one hand on the ground and the other shielding his face. The big man yelling at him to give him all his money. The actions I took right after that lasted about ten seconds. I pull my Beretta from my holster, tell the people to cross over to the north side and stay out of the way, and to get against the fence, radioed W4 and told him to make sure they didn’t make a break to the north side and radioed dispatch to inform of the situation. They said they would contact the PD on the south side, I told them don’t bother, he’s a Federale, Mexican police officer. I shine my light on him and yelled “Que Haces”. My weapon is now behind my right quad and my flashlight is trained on the Federales face. He looks at me and uses  couple of choice words. My dispatch informs that I am not, for any reason, to cross the border, that I must remain on the north side. I don’t respond, just kept my focus on the Federale and his gun. If he had pointed that weapon at me, I would have been able to defend myself, I was hoping that it wouldn’t come to that. By the Federales slurred speech and wobbling stance, I was guessing he had a little too many Tequilas. The confrontation, that seemed like a lifetime, lasted all of 30 seconds. He kept telling me that it wasn’t any of my business, mixed with some language that his mother would wash his mouth out with soap with. I yelled something, don’t even remember what language it was, could have been Spanish, could have been English, could have been Swahili by the confused look on his face. He finally looks down at the man on the ground, back at me, then pushes the man down with some force and turns, holsters his weapon and leaves. I relayed to my dispatch that incident ws over and that the assailant had left. I was at the right place at the right time, could have easily been the wrong place at the wrong time if Senor Tequila felt like becoming the Mexican Wyatt Earp. The now illegal entrants, 20 feet into the north side, thanked me. I stayed there talking to them for a while. They told me that they had been there for about two weeks and that they have been robbed prior, it wasn’t the first time. They told me about their families in their country and how they left their loved ones because there was no work where they lived. A mixed gang of men and 1 woman. They were risking their lives because they needed to feed their children. I asked him how much did the guy take and he just got the one persons cash. The other ones left as soon as he made his presence known with the .38. I gave them my left over food, half a club sandwich from Denny’s and  fries and told them if he returns to come back to the gate and that I would bring them north until he left. You want to hear another. This one will make you scratch your head.

I was on the swing shift, working overtime on Rover patrol, when scope, an agent working heat sensing cameras, calls out a group of 4 crossing. I get to the location where they were spotted and quickly see them low crawling. When they spot me they get up and run. They run through a group of bushes. Two feet on the other side of these pushes was a Cholla Cactus, I’m guessing. It was the type of cactus that grows in small pieces and when you run into them, parts of them come off. The reason I know that, is because I ran right deadsmack into them. I can’t express how much that hurt and how dumb I felt. It hurt because I was running at full speed, try it, run full speed into a cactus. I felt dumb because, while I looked like a linebacker arresting this cactus for illegal growing, the small group of 4 managed to bank right and avoid the cactus. At this point I yelled out, like a man that ran into a cactus full speed. The group stopped, looked back and came to help me. They told me to stand still. They grabbed my pants and pulled it off my leg, removing the cactus from my leg. They were clear. They had open space and a direct route down the mountain into Imperial Beach. They didn’t do it. They helped me instead. They pulled that cactus off of me like people that had done this on prior occasions. What did I do to thank them. I deported them. Actually, I thanked them for their kindness, shook their hand and them told them that I couldn’t let them go. to their credit, they completely understood. I didn’t take them in and fingerprint them, take their picture and get their details for the system, no, but I told them that right now, straight down the path they were taking, there were already two other agents waiting for them. Redundancy. They looked down and just smiled. I pulled my Bronco up to the fence and told them, hop back over and that where they tried to cross was full of security cameras and sensors. That I wished I could help but……I said, I can’t tell you that about 500 feet west there was a sensor that wasn’t working correctly and that crossing at night was giving us problems. I can’t tell you that. I can’t tell you that it will be fixed by tomorrow morning, nope, I would get in trouble. They climbed on the hood of my truck and hopped over. That was the last time I ever seen them. Don’t know if they are part of DACA, I hope so.

This portrayal of illegal people, (not aliens, martians are aliens, they are people), as some kind of monsters that are here to harm us are completely false, for the most part. Don’tDACA rules mix them up as all being drug runners or mules. They’re not, while admittedly some are, but very few. Most are looking to support their families, exactly what all of us would do if we were in their position. I’m not lobbying for open borders, I don’t think it’s wise to have open borders but I am urging common sense. The DACA program is meant for people that have been here for a while and we didn’t even know they were among us. We didn’t know because they have caused no trouble, have not been arrested, work (they can’t be on any social program) and are productive. These people basically assimilated in the best possible way. The criteria they face forces them to do that.

My blame for the stall of this program is going to be tough to hear. I could be mixed up but it seems that the Democratic criticisms on President Trump has left him unwilling to approach the subject at this time. I’m going to try and be as diplomatic as possible about this situation and refuse to take sides. On one hand you have the President who knows that this is a tool to mend bridges with the left but isn’t quite “feeling the love” so he is deciding to hold off and the other you have the Democratic Caucus who feels that this shouldn’t be a political issue but a humanitarian one and should be passed immediately, without “giving the love”. In the middle you have innocent people, innocent in that they were forced to migrate as children, that are hoping the differences can be resolved. For the President, having people, that already here and assimilated, working and paying taxes is the easiest solution to counting them as basically visas delivered through the lottery. He can count them to the quota that the government gives out each year and, bonus, they are proven good people that are already paying taxes. From a business point of view, and the President is a businessman, not so much a politician but that’s the platform he ran on, that is a huge win. For the left, if they can find a way to reconcile their differences somehow, they get their legislative win and more importantly they helped those people that they were trying to help. It really is a DACA Trumpwin-win situation if both sides can find something positive to say about each other. Everyone in government feels like this the right thing to do. Please don’t let petty differences get in the way of what can be a monumental moment of solidarity. We are the world’s leaders in front of the cameras, meaning everyone watches our every step. Let us show them what we are capable of.

You want to hear something ironic, I ended leaving the BP into another position within the government, met a wonderful woman who happened to be illegal, married her, had a child and had to leave my job because I lied about where I met her. True story. The whole thing, not just the ending.

This story, while written with good intentions, is poorly written and reads a little rough. Doesn’t really captivate the reader the way I wanted to, I got bored trying to edit it. To my credit though, I did manage to introduce the word hoopla into the story. There’s that, I guess.

 

NY TIMES: DAILY CONVERSATION WITH ABIGAIL SPANBERGER. INTERESTING MODERATE POLITICIAN

abigail spanberger

Listening to her speak, it’s easy to see why she won. She thinks her answers through and qualifies her answers with good old common sense. She seems to be a diamond in the making. Talk is easy. I hope she can achieve her goals. If she can win in the oppositions backyard then, maybe…. hmmm… I’ll wait 4-6 years before I know for certain but maybe….

I just liked listening to her talk. Mrs. Spanberger was funny, interesting and smart, all at the same time. All that’s left to see is her ability to get the job done, won’t expect too much in the first two years, and her ability to bring people to the center, which means breaking ranks when it’s the right thing to do.

Abortion.

EXPLICIT LANGUAGE AND DETAIL. NOT FOR MINORS READING.

How to start this topic? I guess I’ll start with my experience with the dreaded “a” word. When I was 17, I was dating this beautiful, at least to me, Peruvian American woman, she was a year younger, and we had a scintillating 3 images (5)year relationship full of teenage drama and emotional roller coaster rides and  lots of sex. Janina, I’ll just use her first name to protect her identity, was my first love and my first lover. I met her at an Antioch, a religious retreat, when I was 16. We exchanged numbers and started a slow moving relationship that lasted through several small break-ups and one very scary moment. In the summer of 1988 or was it 89, in the summer of a long time ago, I sat with Janina, at her house, at the kitchen table. She had called me earlier, on a landline, cellphones back then were too expensive and texting was putting a note on a rock and throwing it through a window, and had stated that she needed to talk to me. She told me that she thought she was pregnant and that she was late. My heart started to beat fast and I stupidly said “but how” the first thing that came out. She just looked at me like I was a buffoon, “what do you mean how, you weren’t complaining while you were doing it” she raised her voice. Oh yeah. I was thinking to myself, this can’t be, I have so many things to do. I have to go to college, I have to get a job, I have to climb Mt. Everest. That’s it, I’ll climb Mt. Everest, she can’t find me there. “How about an abortion?” I asked her. I really did not want to be a dad. I was nervous and it was the first thing I thought of, after the Mt. Everest idea, that is. Which if you think about it….. no, that was a stupid idea. She said she didn’t know what she wanted to do, her first thought was to go live with an aunt in Florida, “an Aunt in Florida?”

We decided that we were going to go to Planned Parenthood to get a pregnancy test. She was old enough where she didn’t need her parent’s consent. After about a day of wondering, I got hold of a car and I drove her to Planned Parenthood where she entered and got a pregnancy test. I prayed that day. It might have been my most religious day of my life. Our father who ate in heaven, hollow be thy tree, thy kingdom come , so did I and that’s why I am in so much trouble. Please help. Amen. I waited in the car until she was done. She came out of Planned Parenthood and got in the car that I “borrowed” from my parents. She looked at me and my heart sunk, “pregnant aren’t you, shit, I knew it”. She said “No, I’m not”. My memory is fuzzy about what happened next. All I know is that the sun was brighter, the day was more beautiful, life was amazing, there was a God, for right now, and he answered my beautiful prayer. The problem with me is that I was young and did not know how to handle that situation. Time would take care of that problem.

Eighteen years later, in Elizabeth, N.J., the same exact thing happened. This time God must have had better things to do, because I used the same exact prayer that I did back than. Different woman, different result. Cata, abbreviated first name, told me and I said “Abortion?” and she gave me a look that would freeze the national debt and turn it backwards “or whatever you want”, I continued, ” I support you in whatever decision you make.” Different reaction. Time.

I Think I got more reliant on prayer then I did safe sex, but that is one heck of a prayer, if I do say so myself. Nine months later, I’m  a PROUD dad of a bouncing little person and I couldn’t be happier. The most AMAZING thing that happened to me in my life and one of the few things I would risk my life for without thinking twice. Truly a miracle.

So why are so many people against abortion? I was all for it until my child was born and then I was confused. At that time though, I was financially sound and had a really good job, that paid very well. I could afford the miracle, or surprise, better yet a Miracle Surprise. I was and still am extremely happy that Cata was the mother and was against having an abortion. But not everyone is or was as lucky as me, back then.

Money is a serious issue when thinking about having a child. Children are expensive. They want food and clothes and do this horrible noise when you don’t give them that stuff. And they grow!! So the clothes you just bought them, none are any good. Money down the proverbial drain. And you can’t just stretch the clothes to make them bigger, no, they rip. What a money maker for a business.

Then there is housing. You have to live somewhere. You could live with your mother and father but then you have grandma knows best situations which could be tricky. No, you really need your own place for your wife to yell at you for watching football while the little one is learning to walk and break lamps. And when you high five them for their achievement, there’s mom with her hands at her waist “Turn that TV off”, I swore that was my name.

Then there is doctor bills. Good jobs have sucky insurance, so sucky jobs have nothing. You spend and spend and spend. So why abortions you ask? Sometimes people are overwhelmed or not ready for the responsibility of being a parent. Then you have people calling other people that are on public assistance, deadbeats and parasites. So they say, I’m not going to be one, I have to abort, then those same people are at the abortion clinics calling you a murderer. You see the double edged sword of making people feel like shit. You chastise them for one thing and when they try to correct it, they chastise you for the other. You can’t win with some people. I call those people, People in dear need of a blow job. Or a good lay, I don’t want to gender discriminate. Or maybe a hot enema, you see, that’s gender neutral.

Pregnancies happen, even if you use protection. The only real protection from getting pregnant is abstinence. Let’s face it, that isn’t going to happen very often. You can try to teach your kids abstinence but they are going to wonder why and go do it. It’s hard decisions. You have to teach them safe sex, trust me on that one.

So, are you? A murderer? I have been lucky in my life to not ever have had to find out what it feels like to have had a girlfriend or wife who had an abortion, that was pregnant with my kid anyway. I’m telling you that prayer is 99% effective.

The definition of murder is Murder occurs when one human being unlawfully kills another human being. See Homicide. The precise legal definition of murder varies by jurisdiction. Most states distinguish between different degrees of murder. Some other states base their murder laws on the Model Penal Code.

That did nothing to help me decide. When are we human beings? Is it at birth or conception or sometime in between? Some people say when the heart starts to beat and others say when you can live outside the womb. I say I’m not in the position to decide, Thank God, again. But I do have an opinion. I am a christian, if I am any religion. And the good book says judge not unless ye be judged or judge not unless you are a judge and there is a jury present or just stop judging people. If you have to make a decision of aborting because your situation is that you have no support, no money and that the child would be lost in a state institution and you would rather it be in heaven, believe me that might not be a bad choice. And if you decide to abort, then I say to you that God will judge you at the pearly gates and you will answer for what you have done, but I’m not going to judge you, neither here or ever, because I’m not him and it’s your choice.

And I’m sure you will go through your own personal hell after having your first kid and thinking back to the last abortion, hopefully only one. I strongly believe that God is pro choice because he wants to be the one to send you where you need to go and also because he gave it to us, choice, the only animal alive to have that power. That’s if you believe in creation and not in evolution. I am 50/ 50 when it comes to religion, and just in case I am wrong, I can show God this article as proof, if it ever comes to that. You see God, I believed in you, half of the time.

Now if you thought God is going to send you to heaven after you read that last paragraph, then good for you, I hear God is forgiving if nothing else, but if you thought hell, then you are feeling guilty and there is really nothing left for me to do to you that you aren’t doing to yourself.

My thought is that anyone thinking about an abortion should have a class before aborting, just non-medical emergency abortions, and be forced to volunteer at a pediatric clinic, then if you still want to abort, it is your choice. It actually may be the more humane thing in certain situations, I really don’t know.

I’m calling my child right now and telling him/her that I love him/her, my child is just one gender, just in case you are worried with my statement. I just don’t want you to know which one, that’s sexist.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Illegal Immigration and Business

Illegal immigration has been a problem for this country since some pesky Europeans decided in 1492 that they were fed up with life and were going to sail off the end of the world. Galileo told them that they were wrong, I think his exacBorn-in-East-LAt words were “you’re wrong”, don’t quote me, I wasn’t there, for that you are going to have to ask Bernie Sanders, you get it, because he’s old, but still my first choice for Commander and Chief, even with his mid-afternoon naps. Galileo specifically said that the world was round but Columbus was so depressed due to Marco Polo’s discovery of noodles in China that he  headed west. Now, if you are saying to yourself that all these people were in different time periods, I say I’m a blog not CNN or FOX News, which means I probably have more accurate news. Now let’s fast forward to the present day.

Illegal Immigration in the present day is completely different from the swashbuckling days of yesteryear, wow, that sentence is too funny. Illegals no longer possess the names Smith, Achterberg, Sanchez (Spain), Bartlett or Hancock. they now are made mostly of Gutierrez, Sanchez (Mexico), Bedoya, and Flores. Most of our illegal immigrants come from Central and South America. According to the Department of Homeland Security, the estimates are 11.4 million unauthorized immigrants living in the United States, down from 11.5 million in 2011. Other sources put the number higher and lower, i.e. the GOP debate says up to 30 million and the DNC debate says what illegal immigrants. The top countries of origin are Mexico, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and the Phillipines. You know what these countries have in common with us, they are all

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Trump’s New Wall

democracies. They have Presidents and Legislations similar to ours. The follow our model of government to some point. Most are considered Flawed Democracies, meaning that their civil rights records are not up to par or, like Venezuela used to do, they would forget to add the opponents name on the ballot, oops, mi culpa. Venezuela aside, most countries try to hold fair elections. So what’s my point? I am wondering why our screwed up neighbors to the south send us so many of their wonderful people to visit us. Most illegal immigrants that I spoke with say the same thing, jobs, money, needing to eat, to visit Niagara Falls, the last one was pretty uncommon. They don’t have businesses in Central America. But how can that be? All my sneakers are made there, except for my New Balances which are mostly made in the U.S.A. So I look at my tags on my sneakers, this time with my glasses on and I see A-N-I-H-C. That spells Anihc? Haha, I have the tag upside down, C-H-I-N-A, That spells China, really it does. I was wondering why companies that were mostly innovated in the U.S.A. have their factories in an Authoritarian Regime? Aren’t we trying to stop the growth of such states and  flourish the growth of Democracies similar to ours, some of who are located on our southern border?

As a whole the European Union, made up of democratic governments, has the best GDP, Gross Domestic Product of any country conglomerate in the world. Singularly, as a single country and not a bunch of countries getting together to fudge the numbers while they play poker,  the U.S.A. is number one. Number two, and growing fast, is communist China, thanks to businesses that prefer making money over… I guess over not making that much money? Ok, reportedly the cost of doing business in China is a quarter of the cost of doing business in the U.S.A. That does not bode well for us in trying to retain businesses here. We all heard the argument of corporate greed and what not, right. I see the same old pictures of the same people picketing the big businesses on Wall Street and the only thing that changes is that the picketers get older while the guy walking to his office gets out out of a newer Mercedes. They get older, the Mercedes get younger. But this isn’t about some crazy picketer who is picketing the Cigarette companies in front of the Bank companies. No, this is a story of why aren’t we redirecting these companies to Central America, our neighbors that keep forgetting to put their opponents on the ballot (Just Venezuela)?

Our problem from the south is that people are coming to our country to images (2)find jobs and make ends meat. Also the drug corridor and to boot the increasing influence of China, which is not located on our southern border. If we were to follow a model similar to that of the European Union, I mean we don’t have to become a Union, we can just live together until we feel like making that leap, we can fix those problems, I think. If our politicians were to start making deals with big business and the leaders of the Central American countries and try and move the manufacturing jobs to the southern countries, we could solve all of our problems in one clean swoop, ehh sweep, or is it swoop, in one try. Start giving countries tax breaks for doing manufacturing in a democratic regime and start a security anti-authoritarian hacking our government computer tax, we’ll just call it a SAAHOGC Tax, named after the first Chinese hacker, not really. If you give our friends from the Southern Border reason to stay in their beautiful countries then, I’m sure, they would love us for it and actually only come here to visit and spend their hard earned money, like we will train them to do. Once you build jobs, security will follow, meaning that running drugs will be frowned on by big business and therefore, the countries will actually do something about it because the bribes from the drug lords won’t match the money they make from manufacturing jobs.

1930s-illegal-immigration-article_5441
Where’s my two dollars?

And they will have to choose one or the other. Now, we aren’t doing this to be nice, no, it’s strictly self-interest. One analogy would be if I had a nice lawn and my neighbors lawns were full of crabgrass, weeds, (not the kind you smoke), dried out and infected with rodents, then I have the prettiest yard in a crappy neighborhood. Or if my lawn was nice and so were my neighbors, the you have a happy neighborhood. Let the next town over worry about their messy lawns, in this case, let Asia do their own thing and let us fix our neighborhood first. I know that sounds mean and uncaring, but I care, about taking care of us so we then can take care of others, if they need the help. I once dated a flight attendant and I asked her why wouldn’t I put the mask on my kid first and she said because you are the adult and if you pass out your kid isn’t going to be able to help you or anyone. So, we have our oxygen masks on, now let us help the person next to us, then we can help everyone else. We can help make them be profitable and fix these problems and have them help with our GDP by tourism and profit sharing, I mean who doesn’t want to visit Route 66, or you can just build the wall and hope those weeds don’t spread in our yard. I don’t know, maybe we can do both. But undoubtedly, it is up to the politicians to make this happen.

 

ARMS RACE AND IKE

arms race

With the U.S. and Russia feuding over the range of ICBM’s, you can look forward to another arms race. This means that taxes will soon go up, those bunkers that people used to sell to the paranoid rich, will be in vogue again and that Eisenhower’s criticism of the MIC, military industrial complex, a real thing, was well deserved.

MICEisenhower, or Ike, was one of my favorite Presidents. The 34th President of the U.S. and an extreme moderate, if there is such a thing. A Republican by party, a general during WWII, and enacted the Civil Rights Act of ’57. One of his biggest concerns was an arms race. . Eisenhower was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961. During World War II, he was a five-star general in the United States Army and served as Supreme Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Forces in Europe. He was responsible for planning and supervising the invasion of North Africa in Operation Torch in 1942–43 and the successful invasion of France and Germany in 1944–45 from the Western Front.

Born David Dwight Eisenhower in Denison, Texas, he was raised in Kansas, (it seems that Kansas or people associated with Kansas, have a tendency to turn out good Presidents), in a large family of mostly Pennsylvania Dutch ancestry. His family had a strong religious background. His mother was born a Lutheran, married as a River Brethren, and later became a Jehovah’s Witness. Even so, Eisenhower did not belong to any organized church until 1952. He cited constant relocation during his military career as one reason. He graduated from West Point in 1915 and later married Mamie Doud, with whom he had two sons. During World War I, he was denied a request to serve in Europe and instead commanded a unit that trained tank crews. Following the war, he served under various generals and was promoted to the rank of brigadier general in 1941. After the U.S. entered World War II, Eisenhower oversaw the successful invasions of North Africa and Sicily before supervising the invasions of France and Germany. After the war, Eisenhower served as Army Chief of Staff and then took on the uncomfortable role as president of Columbia University. In 1951–52, he served as the first Supreme Commander of NATO.

In 1952, Eisenhower entered the presidential race as a Republican to block the foreign policies of Senator Robert A. Taft. He won that election and the 1956 election in landslides, both times defeating Adlai Stevenson II. He became the first Republican-elected President since Herbert Hoover in 1928. Eisenhower’s main goals in office were to contain the expansion of the Soviet Union and reduce federal deficits. In 1953, he threatened the use of nuclear weapons until China agreed to terms regarding POWs in the Korean War. An armistice ended the stalemated conflict. His New Look policy of nuclear deterrence prioritized inexpensive nuclear weapons while reducing funding for expensive Army divisions. He continued Harry S. Truman’s policy of recognizing the Republic of China as the legitimate government of China, and he won congressional approval of the Formosa Resolution. His administration provided major aid to help the French fight off Vietnamese Communists in the First Indochina War. After the French left he gave strong financial support to the new state of South Vietnam. He supported local military coups against governments in Iran and Guatemala. During the Suez Crisis of 1956, Eisenhower condemned the Israeli, British and French invasion of Egypt, and he forced them to withdraw. He also condemned the Soviet invasion during the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 but took no action. During the Syrian Crisis of 1957 he approved a CIA-MI6 plan to stage fake border incidents as an excuse for an invasion by Syria’s pro-Western neighbors. After the Soviet Union launched Sputnik in 1957, Eisenhower authorized the establishment of NASA, which led to the Space Race. He deployed 15,000 soldiers during the 1958 Lebanon crisis. Near the end of his term, his efforts to set up a summit meeting with the Soviets collapsed when a U.S. spy plane was shot down over Russia. He approved the Bay of Pigs invasion, which was left to his successor to carry out.

On the domestic front, Eisenhower was a moderate conservative who continued New Deal agencies and expanded Social Security. He covertly opposed Joseph McCarthy and contributed to the end of McCarthyism by openly invoking executive privilege. Eisenhower signed the Civil Rights Act of 1957 and sent Army troops to enforce federal court orders that integrated schools in Little Rock, Arkansas. His largest program was the Interstate Highway System. He promoted the establishment of strong science education via the National Defense Education Act. Eisenhower’s two terms saw widespread economic prosperity except for a minor recession in 1958. In his farewell address to the nation, Eisenhower expressed his concerns about the dangers of massive military spending, particularly deficit spending and government contracts to private military manufacturers. He was voted Gallup’s most admired man twelve times and also achieved widespread popular esteem both in and out of office. Historical evaluations of his presidency place him among the upper tier of U.S. presidents.