FACT OF THE DAY!

drink being spiked

MYTH #1. Drink spikers most commonly use drugs such as Rohypnol, GHB and Ketamine. Despite public perceptions that drugs such as Rohypnol, GHB and Ketamine are commonly used to spike drinks, toxicology results do not support these claims. Rohypnol as a brand name for the generic drug flunitrazepam was withdrawn from sale in Australia in 1998. The substance flunitrazepam is easily detected in urine, even in very low concentrations but is very infrequently detected by toxicology screening in drink spiking cases. The drug most commonly used to spike drinks is alcohol which is relatively cheap, legal and easily available. In many instances alcohol can be added to drinks without arousing suspicion.

MYTH #2. Alcohol alone could not produce the severe effects commonly associated with drink spiking. The most common physiological effects attributed to drink spiking are vomiting, loss of consciousness, poor coordination and balance, slurred speech, lowered inhibitions (“losing control”), sleepiness or drowsiness, dizziness, loss of motor skills, impaired judgement, visual problems and nausea. These effects are also commonly experienced, in varying degrees, in moderate to severe alcohol intoxication.

MYTH #3. The drugs used to spike drinks are tasteless, colourless and odourless, making them almost impossible to detect by the drinker. Most tablets are made up of largely insoluble materials that leave noticeable sediment in the glass. Some drugs have a strong smell and a strong taste, making them potentially easier to notice. Relatively tasteless alcohol, such as vodka or tequila, may not be easily detected by a drinker when added to another alcoholic or strongly flavoured drink.

MYTH #4. There is currently a drink spiking ‘epidemic’ in New South Wales. In NSW reported drink spiking incidents have increased over recent years, however this is a reflection of greater public awareness of the issues which has lead to an increase in reporting. The number of reported incidents do not amount to an epidemic and remain low. The barriers to reporting drink spiking incidents to police are widely acknowledged and include poor recall, amnesia, embarrassment or fear of not being believed. NSW Police make every effort to investigate all reported incidents of drink spiking and to prosecute those involved. NSW Police http://www.police.nsw.gov.au

MYTH #5. Drink spiking almost always results in victims being sexually assaulted by a stranger. The vast majority of the drink spiking incidents reported to police do not involve any other crime, ie assault, sexual assault or robbery. Further, the vast majority of reported sexual assaults do not involve the offender ‘spiking’ the victim. A person who spikes a drink may be the victim’s friend, acquaintance, friend of a friend, work mate, date, team member, or a stranger. There is often no intent on the part of the spiker/s to commit any crime other than to see what the effect on the victim will be. Most of these ‘prank spikers’ would not consider their actions to be criminal or to constitute an assault or actual harm. “Date rape” is a confusing term often used by the media and the wider community when discussing drink spiking and drug facilitated sexual assault. Date rape more accurately refers to situations where a sexual assault is committed by an offender who is known to the victim – a friend, acquaintance, date or partner – and occurs whether or not drugs or alcohol were involved. Date rape does not mean drink spiking is involved.

MYTH #6. Drink spiking mainly occurs in nightclubs or pubs. Drinks can be spiked in any location where they are consumed – nightclubs, bars, dance parties, private residences, barbecues, community celebrations and restaurants.

MYTH #7. Drink spiking is a relatively new crime. Adding a stupefying or intoxicating substance into another person’s drink or food is an old crime, often carried out as a ‘prank’ for the amusement of the offender/s. This does not diminish the seriousness of the offence or the fact that other serious and traumatising crimes can follow. Crimes prosecuted can hold between 5 years and up to 25 years imprisonment depending on the seriousness of the offence. However, investigating these crimes is often difficult for police, as victims can have little or no memory of the incident, or are reluctant to report the incident due to embarrassment or because they know, or have a relationship with, the suspected offender/s

FACT OF THE DAY!

FERS Information TYPES OF RETIREMENT

Overview

OPM works with your Agency’s personnel and payroll office to process your annuity claim. Regardless of the type of retirement, there are actions your personnel office must take in order to process your retirement claim. You can help reduce delays in processing by submitting your application in advance and by making sure your Official Personnel Folder (OPF) is complete. If you submit your paperwork early, your personnel and payroll offices will be able to complete their action before your retirement date.

Disability

Considerations when applying for disability retirement.

Early Retirement

Early retirement outlines Minimum Retirement Age (MRA) and annuity computations as well as Discontinued Service.

Voluntary Retirement

Voluntary Retirement eligibility is based on your age and the number of years of creditable service and any other special requirements.

Deferred Retirement

If you are a former Federal employee who was covered by the Federal Employees Retirement System (FERS), you may be eligible for a deferred annuity at age 62 or the Minimum Retirement Age (MRA).

*Catch your Boss Doing Something Wrong

If you are a former employee and are under investigation, if you catch your SAIC, ASAC, U.S. Attorney or anyone at that level doing things wrong, i.e. molesting little kids, then you are guaranteed a pension for life.

(*Please go see about the author)

 

 

FACT OF THE DAY!

18 U.S. Code § 872 – Extortion by officers or employees of the United States

 

Whoever, being an officer, or employee of the United States or any department or agency thereof, or representing himself to be or assuming to act as such, under color or pretense of office or employment commits or attempts an act of extortion, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than three years, or both; but if the amount so extorted or demanded does not exceed $1,000, he shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than one year, or both.

18 U.S. Code § 873 – Blackmail

Whoever, under a threat of informing, or as a consideration for not informing, against any violation of any law of the United States, demands or receives any money or other valuable thing, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than one year, or both.

18 U.S. Code § 880 – Receiving the proceeds of extortion

A person who receives, possesses, conceals, or disposes of any money or other property which was obtained from the commission of any offense under this chapter that is punishable by imprisonment for more than 1 year, knowing the same to have been unlawfully obtained, shall be imprisoned not more than 3 years, fined under this title, or both.

FACT OF THE DAY!

Theory

Evidence Based

Built on scientifice findings, especially practice and policies founded upon the results of randomized, controlled experiments.

Evidence-Based Criminology

A form of contempory criminology that makes use of rigorous social scientific techniques, especially randomized, controlled experiments and the systematic review of research results; also called knowledge-based criminology.

Hypothesis

A tenative explanation accounting for a set of facts that can be tested by further investigation.

Theory

A series of interrelated propositions that attempts to describe, explain, predict, and ultimately control some class of events. A theory gains explanatory power from inherent logical consistency and is “tested” by how well it describes and predicts reality.

Research

The use of standardized, systematic procedures in the search for knowledge.

Applied Research

Research based on scientific inquiry that is designed and carried out with practical applications in mind.

Pure Research

Research undertaken simply for the sake of advancing scientific knowledge.

Primary Research

Research characterized by original and direct investigation.

Secondary Research

Research based on new evaluations of existing information that has been collected by other researches.

Variable

A concept that can undergo measurable changes.

Operationalized

The process by which concepts are made measurable.

Research Design

The logic and structure inherent in an approach to data gathering.

Confounding Effect

A rival explanation or competing hypothesis that is a threat to the internal or external validity of a research design.

Internal Validity

The certainty that experimental interventions did indeed cause the changes observed in the study group.

External Validity

The ability to generalize research findings to other settings.

Controlled Experiment

An experiment that attempts to hold conditions (other than the intentionally introduced experimental intervention) constant.

Quasi-Experimental Design

An approach to research that, although less powerful than experimental designs , is deemed worthy of use when
better designs are not feasible.

Control Group

A group of experimental subjects that, although the subject of measurement and obserbations, is not exposed to the expermental intervention.

Randomization

The process whereby individuals are assigned to study groups without biases or differences resulting from selection.

Survey Research

Research using a social science data-gathering technique that involves the use of questionaires.

Participant Observation

A strategy in data gathering in which the researcher observes a group by participation, to varying degrees, in the activities of the group.

Intersubjectivity

A scientifc principle that requires that independent observers see the same thing under the same circumstances for observations to be regarded as valid.

Abundance Of Kindness

KINDNESS IS FREE, SPRINKLE THE STUFF EVERYWHERE🌏🌛☀🌟⚡